Morton neuromas are focal areas of symptomatic perineural fibrosis around a plantar digital nerve of the foot. The abnormality is non-neoplastic and does not represent a true neuroma. It may more correctly be known as Morton?s metatarsalgia. The condition is thought to be due to chronic entrapment of the nerve by the intermetatarsal ligament. It most often occurs in middle-aged individuals and is many times more common in women than men. Approximately 30% of asymptomatic middle-aged persons have the radiological pathologic findings of a Morton?s neuroma.
Morton's neuroma is an inflammation caused by a buildup of fibrous tissue on the outer coating of nerves. This fibrous buildup is a reaction to the irritation resulting from nearby bones and ligaments rubbing against the nerves. Irritation can be caused by Wearing shoes that are too tight. Wearing shoes that place the foot in an awkward position, such as high heels. A foot that is mechanically unstable. Repetitive trauma to the foot such as from sports activities like tennis, basketball, and running. Trauma to the foot caused by an injury such as a sprain or fracture. It is unusual for more than one Morton's neuroma to occur on one foot at the same time. It is rare for Morton's neuroma to occur on both feet at the same time.
Episodes of pain are intermittent. Patients may experience 2 attacks in a week and then none for a year. Recurrences are variable and tend to become more frequent. Between attacks, no symptoms or physical signs occur. Two neuromas coexist on the same foot about 2-3% of the time. Other diagnoses should be considered when 2 or more areas of tenderness are present.
Your health care provider can usually diagnose this problem by examining your foot. A foot x-ray may be done to rule out bone problems. MRI or high-resolution ultrasound can successfully diagnose Morton's neuroma. Nerve testing (electromyography) cannot diagnose Morton's neuroma, but may be used to rule out conditions that cause similar symptoms. Blood tests may be done to check for inflammation-related conditions, including certain forms of arthritis.
Non Surgical Treatment
Conservative treatment for Morton?s neuroma involves footwear that allows your forefoot to spread. High-heeled shoes cause neuromas by squeezing and stretching your involved intermetatarsal nerve across the ball of your foot and should be avoided as often as possible. A shoe that possesses any toe spring will also place more stress on your foot nerves and increase your likelihood of developing a neuroma. Test shoes before you buy them to see if they are appropriate for your feet. Select shoes that have a removable liner or insole, and stand on the liner, noting the position of your foot. If your foot is wider than your liner, that shoe will irritate your neuroma by squeezing your metatarsal bones together.
Surgery to excise the neuroma is usually performed under general anaesthetic in a day surgery facility. After surgery you will have to keep your foot dry for two weeks. Generally neuroma surgery allows for early weight bearing and protection in some type of post op shoe gear. Some neuromas may reoccur, but this is rare. Most studies on patient satisfaction after neuroma surgery show approximately 90% reduction of pain and about 85% of all patients rated the overall satisfaction with the results as excellent or good.